Expose the Machinery

Why is it so hard for software engineering leaders to justify architectural improvements?

When the CEO asks why you need to invest in upgrades, you can’t just say “trust me” and then get frustrated when your requests don’t get funded.

Imagine for a moment that you are a manufacturing engineering leader at an automotive factory, and various machines in the factory are worn with age and growing less reliable over time. Some of them no longer perform at the level that is needed. You might propose upgrading and modernizing. You would gather data demonstrating the problems. You would quantify the risk of delaying the upgrades to various future time horizons. You would cost out the upgrade options and recommend a solution. You would calculate the expected improvements in performance and reliability, and the projected net impact on the bottom line. And here’s the key, you might invite the CEO on a tour of the factory so they can see and experience the trouble spots first hand.

I think we have trouble justifying architectural investments in software engineering because, unlike in the automotive factory, our systems machinery is hidden away in a data center or “in the cloud.” However, if we demonstrate rigor and get creative about exposing the machinery to the CEO, the justification may become a lot easier.

The proposal might start something like this: 

”The core code of our inventory system is 5 years old and the implementation is brittle. As a result, we have suffered partial or complete downtime for an hour or more at least once a quarter for the past year. There is a high risk (95% probability) of continued incidents and longer outages. I’ve worked with finance to estimate a cost of $50-100K for each outage...” (then more data, options, recommendations, costs, bottom line impact, etc.).

Then, follow that conversation with a “tour of the factory floor.” Get creative! Invent ways to make the inventory system real. Show and explain some of the brittle code. Demonstrate one or more failure modes using diagrams or simulations. Show the real people who are impacted by outages and demonstrate how it costs the business. Force the system to fail right then and there and then demonstrate how you did it. Do an interpretive dance. Go crazy! Just make it real.

No more “trust me.” We can do better than that, if we use rigor and we expose the machinery.

Caring Enough to Give Tough Feedback

One of the skills you need to learn as a manager (and as a leader) is how to give tough feedback. I find it interesting that people have so much trouble doing it.

I also find it interesting that managers who are also parents often approach giving tough feedback differently at work than they do at home (I’m a parent of two teenage boys). They rarely hesitate to give tough feedback to their kids each day, but at work they hold back.


I suspect that managers are reluctant to give tough feedback when they don’t truly care about the person they need to give feedback to.

Almost nothing in the world is more important to a parent than their kids. They are a reflection of us. (We can argue about whether that is a healthy way for parents to think, but it’s a common sentiment.) We envision the adults they can be, and we do everything we can to lift them up, teach them lessons, and point them in the right direction. We care about them, deeply. We give them tough feedback all...the...time.

Then we go to work, and instead of seeing potential in the people who are struggling, we see them as a problem. Instead of envisioning what they could become we envision making them go away. And we get lazy. We don’t care enough to give them the feedback they need to succeed.

So, step 1 to learning how to give tough feedback is to learn how to truly care about the person. Step 2 is to envision what they can be and challenge them directly to make it happen.

One of the most rewarding parts of managing is witnessing people blossom into amazing professionals and knowing that your direct and caring feedback helped them take the steps to get there.

Want to learn more?

Kim Scott explores these themes in her talks and writings about Radical Candor. Leadership and Self-Deception by the Arbinger Institute will help you learn about why we fail to truly care, and how to challenge people directly the right way.